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Glossary of Pediatric Specialties

At Le Bonheur, we understand that your children are not miniature adults, and that their diseases, symptoms and treatments vary from those of adults. Pediatric specialists are specially trained in caring for the unique health care needs of infants, children and teens. 

Allergy and Immunology – Allergists and immunologists perform comprehensive laboratory testing to diagnose the child’s condition. Services include treatment and testing for asthma, skin allergies, and allergies to food, medications, pollen, and other substances. Some of the major diagnostic procedures include secretion cytology, allergy skin tests, and bronchial challenge.

Cardiology – the study of the heart and its action and diseases. Cardiovascular services include evaluation and treatment for all forms of congenital and acquired heart disease, hypertension, cardiac rhythm disorders and other related pediatric cardiology diagnoses.

Critical Care (ICU) – The critical care team provides coverage for all critically ill and injured patients in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and the Transitional Care Unit.

Dentistry – A branch of medicine that involves diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of any disease concern about teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures.

Dermatology – A medical specialty focusing on skin diseases such as skin cancers, moles, psoriasis, contact dermatitis, and skin conditions arising from other diseases. Dermatologists also treat disorders of the mouth, hair, nails, and external genitalia.

Developmental Pediatrics – Developmental pediatrics offers evaluation of children who either have, or indicate symptoms of having, developmental problems such as mental disabilities, learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, and speech-language disorders.

Ear, Nose and Throat – Ear, Nose and Throat doctors are called otolaryngologists, and they provide medical and surgical treatment of children with diseases of the ear, nose and throat as well as head and neck. Otolaryngologists also work with audiologists and speech-language pathologists to help identify communication disorders.

Endocrinology/Metabolism - A medical specialty that treats disorders of the endocrine system, including the thyroid and adrenal glands, which help control the body's metabolic activity. Pediatric endocrinologists treat children with signs of short stature, early or delayed puberty and/or uncontrollable rapid weight gain. Treatment is provided for conditions such as adrenal disorders, obesity, diabetes, nutritional and metabolic disorders and bone disorders.

Gastroenterology – Gastroenterologists diagnose and treat diseases of the digestive system, including the stomach, intestines, liver, gall bladder and pancreas. Treatment is provided for conditions such as chronic constipation or diarrhea, feeding and swallowing disorders, food allergies, gastro esophageal reflux disease, liver disease, pancreatic insufficiency, nutritional problems and short bowel syndrome.

Genetics – Geneticists evaluate patients with birth defects, congenital anomalies, at-risk situations (maternal exposure), developmental delay, chronic growth failure, multiple miscarriage and fetal wastage, history of a genetic disorder in patient or family member, and any disorder that is genetic or thought to be genetic.

Hematology – A hematologist evaluates and treats patients with known or suspected blood disorders such as sickle cell disease and HIV/AIDS.

Infectious Disease – A medical field concerned with diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures for infectious bacterial and viral diseases of all types. Some conditions that pediatric infectious disease specialists treat include RSV, bone and joint infections, meningitis, HIV/AIDS, histoplasmosis and tuberculosis.

Internal Medicine – Internists provide comprehensive, long-term, general medical care for patients in office and hospital settings. They are trained in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of numerous diseases and conditions, and manage the common illnesses and complex problems of adults and the elderly. They typically do not see patients under 18 years old.

Neonatology – Neonatologists provide advanced care for critically ill newborns especially those needing specialized care or surgical procedures. Services provided in the neonatal intensive care unit include advanced surgical capabilities, multiple subspecialists, Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO), and advanced respiratory care including high-frequency ventilation and inhaled nitric oxide.

Nephrology – A medical specialty concerned with the kidneys and especially with their structure, functions, or diseases. Pediatric nephrologists treat children with all type of kidney disorders such as kidney stones, high blood pressure, abnormalities in salt or body fluids, and kidney transplantation.

Neurology – a branch of medicine concerned especially with the structure, functions, and diseases of the nervous system including the brain and spinal cord, as well as related nerves, muscles and their blood supplies.

Obstetrics/Gynecology – A branch of medicine that deals with the diseases and routine physical care of the reproductive system of women. They also care for patients during pregnancy and deliver babies.

Oncology – Oncologists treat childhood cancers including leukemia and tumors.

Ophthalmology – Pediatric ophthalmologists provide care for common eye disorders in children as well as comprehensive intervention for children with cancer, neuro-ophthalmic disorders, inherited and neonatal retinal disorders, anterior segment and glaucomatous diseases.

Orthopedics – Pediatric orthopedists offer evaluation and treatment of children who have scoliosis and spinal deformities, musculoskeletal diseases and tumors, congenital anomalies, fractures and dislocations. Services also include sports medicine and treatment of the pediatric amputee.

Pediatrics – a branch of medicine dealing with the development, care, and diseases of children. Pediatricians provide preventive health care for healthy children and medical care for children who are ill. These physicians are often specially trained to assess the emotional needs and behavior of infants, children, and adolescents.

Psychiatry – a branch of medicine that deals with the science and practice of treating mental, emotional or behavioral disorders. Conditions can include depression, anxiety disorders, substance-abuse disorders, and schizophrenia, among others.

Pulmonology – Pediatric pulmonologists provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for acute and chronic respiratory disorders in infants, children and adolescents. Disorders include cystic fibrosis, asthma, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), congenital lung abormalities, neuromuscular respiratory diseases, chronic respiratory failure/insufficiency, and pulmonary sleep disorders.

Rheumatology – Pediatric rheumatologists provide treatment for arthritis (infectious arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis), autoimmune disorders (lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Kawasaki disease), chronic musculoskeletal pain, weakness, fatigue, bursitis, lupus, metabolic bone disease, soft tissue disorders and vasculitis.

Surgery – General pediatric surgeons evaluate and treat a wide variety of surgical problems including hernias, appendicitis, and defects of the gastrointestinal tract and trauma. General surgeons are trained to manage a range of surgical conditions in almost every area of the body. They generally provide pre- and post-operative care of their patients and manage the care of trauma victims and critically ill surgical patients.

Surgery, Cardiovascular –
 Cardiothoracic surgery provides surgical intervention for infants, children and adults with congenital cardiac and thoracic diseases. Cardiac surgeons utilize state-of-the-art surgical techniques to correct cardiac problems, including complex cardiac malformations in neonates, arrhythmia, and continuing care for adults who have had conditions present since birth.

Surgery, Neurological – Some of the common diagnoses and procedures for neurosurgeons are brain tumors, spinal tumors, craniofacial anomalies, hydrocephalus, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord trauma, mylomeningocele, arnold chiari malformations, neurofibromatosis, brachial plexus injury, tumor resection and rhizotomy.

Surgery, Plastic – a branch of surgery concerned with the repair, restoration, or improvement of lost, injured, defective, or misshapen parts of the body chiefly by transfer of tissue. It can be elective, as in a facelift, or medically necessary to treat an injury from accident or disease.

Urology – Pediatric urologists provide all aspects of male and female urinary tract problems and genital diseases. Some of the conditions treated include ambiguous genitalia, hematuria, inguinal hernias, un-descended testicles, urinary incontinence, urinary obstruction, urinary stones, urinary tract infections, hypospadias, hydronepehrosis, ureteropelvic junction obstructions, kidney stones, extrophy, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, uretheral valves.